Understanding Hereditary angioedema (HAE) triggers can help patients avoid those triggers.
- Physical exertion
- Mental stress
- Mechanical trauma
- Weather changes
- Medical/dental procedures
- Estrogen-containing oral contraceptive use
Physical exertion involving a repetitive motion for long periods of time can place pressure on one part of the body that may induce an acute attack in HAE patients. These activities may include knitting, gardening, or wearing high heels.18
Mental stress can be a potential trigger for an HAE attack.3 HAE not only causes substantial short-term disability associated with attacks, but, in between attacks, patients may live in persistent anxiety and disappointment, being prevented from participating in selected activities. As such, patients experience substantial psychosocial burden living day-to-day with HAE.18 Providing mental health support or treatment may be necessary for certain individuals.3
Surgery, medical and dental, is an example of epithelial trauma. Dental surgery and tooth extractions can trigger the contact cascade, causing face, lip, cheek, laryngeal, and even abdominal edema.14
HAE symptoms can also be triggered by fluctuations in female hormones. The frequency of HAE attacks in women varies according to the different life stage—childhood, puberty, menses, pregnancies, and menopause. Combined oral contraceptives during the reproductive stage have also triggered HAE symptoms.15
While patients may be able to identify certain triggers, attacks do not always follow, making them difficult to predict.
Role of On-Demand Therapy
Unpredictability of Attacks
A literature review related to the predictability of HAE attacks determined that HAE symptoms are not predictable in the long-term. While some patients may be able to predict some attacks in the short-term based on prodromal symptoms, the prevalence and characteristics of prodromes are highly variable. It is the unpredictability of HAE symptoms that causes anxiety about future attacks and impacts patients’ ability to maintain employment and otherwise be productive.17
How HAE Effects Patient Quality of Life2
- Unable to consider certain careers/jobs
- Impacts career advancement
- Impacts educational choices
- Hinders educational attainment
“…There is something extremely terrifying about having to find the right position so you can get enough air while you are waiting to get to the emergency room.”
FDA Voice of the Patient, HAE, Laryngeal Attack5
The US HAE Medical Advisory Board recommends that all patients with HAE have access to at least two doses of acute, on-demand therapy for administration as early as possible when they feel the symptoms of an attack emerging.8
 Lumry WR, Castaldo AJ, Vernon MK, Blaustein MB, Wilson DA, Horn PT. The humanistic burden of hereditary angioedema: Impact on health-related quality of life, productivity, and depression. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2010 Sep-Oct;31(5):407-14.
 Zotter Z, Csuka D, Szabó E, et al. The influence of trigger factors on hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2014;9:44. https://doi.org/10.1186/1750-1172-9-44
 The Voice of the Patient; Hereditary Angioedema Public Meeting: September 25, 2017; Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
 Zuraw BL, Banerji A, Bernstein JA, et al. US Hereditary Angioedema Association Medical Advisory Board 2013 recommendations for the management of hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2013;1(5):458-67.
 Williams AH, Craig TJ. Perioperative management for patients with hereditary angioedema. Allergy Rhinol
 Bouillet L, Longhurst H, Boccon-Gibod I, et al. Disease expression in women with hereditary angioedema. Am J Obstet Gynecol.
 Magerl MAK, Riedl MA, Newcomer SD, et al. The Predictability of Attacks in Patients with Hereditary Angioedema. J Allergy Clin Immunol.
 Bygum A, Aygören-Pürsün E, Beusterien K, Hautamaki E, Sisic Z, Wait S, Boysen HB, Caballero T (2015) Burden of illness in hereditary angioedema: a conceptual model. Acta Derm Venereol 95:706–710